Nutrition and health
Diets, nutrition, recipes and information for a healthy diet.
Below you can read information about. This article shows information on nutrition and health with information that cannot and should not replace the opinion of a doctor or nutrition professional. If you have doubts or health problems related to this article, beneficial properties of the wine, we suggest you consult with your doctor or nutritionist.
The medical profession has recognized the healthy and nutritious properties of wine for thousands of years. Hippocrates recommended specific wines to reduce fever, disinfect and heal wounds, as a diuretic, or as a nutritional supplement, around 450 BC. A French doctor wrote the oldest known printed book about wine around 1410.
Most pathogens that threaten humans die or are disabled by acids and wine alcohols. Because of this, wine has been regarded as a safer drink than most water available until the 18th century.
Wine is a mild natural tranquilizer, which serves to reduce anxiety and tension. As part of a normal diet, wine provides energy to the body, with substances that aid digestion and with small amounts of minerals and vitamins. Wine can also stimulate appetite. In addition, wine serves to restore nutritional balance, relieve tension, calm down and act as a light stimulant in convalescence, especially in the elderly.
Wine and political repression
Although wine may be the oldest and still in use prophylactic remedy, there was a whole generation of medical professionals, especially in the United States, who obtained their medical education during the historical period known as the Dry Law. In medical texts of almost twenty-five years, all mention of alcohol, including wine, was eliminated and censored for any application other than its external use. This generation of physicians became the educators to the next, which perpetuated medical ignorance of the potential health benefits of wine.
In the 1970s, the US National Institutes of Health excluded and suppressed evidence from a study that showed that moderate drinkers had 50 percent fewer deaths from coronary heart disease than non-drinkers.
Only when the television news magazine "60 Minutes" reported in November 1991, the phenomenon that has come to be known as the French paradox made popular thought of wine as a medicinal element rather than a toxin began to return. Normally, the diet of people in the south of France includes a very high proportion of cheese, butter, eggs, meats, fatty acids and other cholesterol-laden foods. This diet seems to promote heart disease, but the rate of heart disease in the South of France was much lower than in the United States, here is the paradox.
Regularity and moderation in wine consumption
It has been found that moderate consumption of wine on a regular basis, is healthy. Studies conducted in England and Denmark showed that the presence of coronary disease is much greater in compulsive drinkers but even greater in abstainers. It is very important to note that Europeans generally drink wine and water with their meals, while Americans drink milk, tea, soft drinks or coffee.
Fight against cancer and benefits of wine
Moderate consumption of red wine on a regular basis can prevent coronary heart disease and some forms of cancer. The chemical components believed to be responsible for this preventive effect of wine are catechins, also known as flavonoids and related to tannins. The catechins present in wine are thought to function as antioxidants, which prevent molecules known as "free radicals" from damaging cells. A particular form of flavonoid, called oligomeric procyanidin, has recently been shown to prevent arteriosclerosis.
There are also compounds in grape and wine (especially red wine, grape juice, dark beers and tea, but absent in white wine, light beers and spirits) called resveratrol and quercetin. Clinical and statistical evidence and laboratory studies have shown that these can stimulate the immune system, block cancer formation, and possibly protection against heart disease and even prolong life.
A recent study, published in 2004 in the American Journal of Physiology, also indicates that resveratrol in wine inhibits the formation of a protein that produces a disease called cardiovascular fibrosis, which reduces the pumping efficiency of the heart, is needed, in times of stress. Other clues suggest that wine that dilates small blood vessels and helps prevent angina and coagulation. The wine alcohol also helps to balance cholesterol.
The research is ongoing and it would be a mistake to change wine consumption with current data.
Wine: Fountain of Youth?
A Harvard study of factors that influence the aging of wine, as published in the May 8, 2003 edition of the journal Nature, has shown that resveratrol, present in wine, extends the life of yeast cells in an 80%. Preliminary results from tests on several animals are encouraging. Study co-author David Sinclair told Reuters news agency: "Not many people know him yet, but those who have seen him have almost invariably changed their drinking habits, that is, they drink more red wine."
Wine may even preserve cognitive function in the elderly. Several European studies have shown the prophylactic effects of light to regulate moderate alcohol consumption may include prevention or postponement of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's and other forms of dementia.
A study published in January 2003 in the American Journal of Gastroenterology showed that moderate and regular consumption of wine or beer lowers the risk of peptic ulcers and may help free the body of the bacteria suspected of causing it. Interestingly, both excess consumption of wine or beer, especially beer, as any regular consumption of alcoholic beverages, seemed to increase the risks for the ulcer.
The Harvard School of Public Health conducted a 14-year study of more than 100,000 women aged 25-42 from 14 states. Subjects were classified into three levels of alcohol consumption. After taking into account variables such as family history of diabetes and smoking, the study found that women who drank regularly and in moderation (one or two drinks per day, a total of 15 to 30 grams of alcohol) had probability of which 58% lower to develop diabetes. Both those who drank more or drank less had a 20% lower risk than abstainers or exhalcoholics. When comparing preferences for types of alcohol, those who chose beer and wine share the same risk levels, but those who drank alcohol and consumed more than 30 grams a day had a 150% higher risk of developing diabetes than even non-drinkers.
Other medical studies point to multiple benefits of regular and moderate wine consumption, which may include low risk of stroke, colorectal tumors, skin and other cancers, senile dementia, and even the common cold, as well as reduce the effects of healing of radiation treatments.
Wine and nutrition
The nutritional content of wine is minimal. There is nothing fat, cholesterol or dietary fiber in the wine. On the other hand, just by drinking wine in excess could someone reach their minimum daily requirement of calories, carbohydrates, sodium, protein, vitamins or minerals that all wines contain to some extent in an insignificant way. The specific content of nutrients in the wine varies among the different types, depending on the color, alcoholic degree and residual sugar.
More than 400 studies from around the world, many of them long-term and large populations, have concluded that most healthy people who drink wine on a regular and moderate basis live longer. The exception is a single group whose members should not consume alcohol and is that of premenopausal women with a family history of breast cancer.